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Publication Title | THE BRANDO INTRODUCING THE ALL-INCLUSIVE LUXURY RESORT ON TETIAROA PRIVATE ISLAND, FRENCH POLYNESIA

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Biofouling and its control in seawater cooled power plant cooling water system - a review 191

Biofouling and its control in seawater cooled power plant cooling water system - a review

K.K. Satpathy1*, A.K. Mohanty1, Gouri Sahu1, S. Biswas2, M.V.R. Prasad1 and M. Slvanayagam2

1Environmental and Industrial Safety Section, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India, 603102 2Loyola Institute of Frontier Energy, Loyola College, Chennai, India

1. Introduction

Biofouling may be defined as the attachment and subsequent growth of a community of usually visible plants and animals on manmade structures exposed to seawater environment. Man has long been aware of this problem. In the fourth century B.C., Aristotle is reported to have stated that small “fish” (barnacles) were able to slow down ships. Fouling of ship hulls, navigational buoys, underwater equipment, seawater piping systems, industrial or municipal intakes, beach well structures, oil rigs and allied structures has often been reported. In the past few decades, the list of affected structures has expanded. Now, reports are common regarding the biofouling that affects Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants, offshore platforms, moored oceanographic instruments and nuclear and other submarines. The impact of biofouling on sea front structures is staggering. Ships show a 10% higher fuel consumption caused by increased drag and frictional resistance resulting from hull and propeller fouling. Water lines lose their carrying capacity and speed of flow owing to biofouling growth along pipe systems. The heat exchanger performance declines due to attachment of biofoulants. Many marine organisms themselves face the constant problem of being colonized and overgrown by fouling organisms. Immobile plants and animals are generally exposed to biofouling and consequent loss of species and community assemblages. Biofouling also promotes corrosion of materials. The money and material needed for fouling protection measures are indeed exorbitant. It is estimated that the marine industry incurs an expenditure of 10 billion sterling pounds a year to combat the situations arising from biofouling worldwide (Satpathy, 1990). A lot of research effort has been devoted to understand the fundamental ecology and biology of fouling environments, organisms and communities in diverse settings.

The huge requirement of cooling water as well as accrescent demand on the freshwater has led to the natural choice for locating power plants in the coastal sites where water is available in copious amount at relatively cheap rate. For example, a 500 MW (e) nuclear power plant uses about 30 m3sec-1 of cooling water for extracting heat from the condenser

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