Cruising Review


Publication Title | GEOENGINEERING DOWNWELLING OCEAN CURRENTS: A COST ASSESSMENT

Luxury Resort Search Engine Series

The Brando Resort | Eco Resort search was updated real-time via Filemaker on:

The Brando Resort | Eco Resort | Return to Search List

Search Completed | Title | GEOENGINEERING DOWNWELLING OCEAN CURRENTS: A COST ASSESSMENT
Original File Name Searched: Flynn_downwelling.pdf | Google It | Yahoo | Bing



Page Number: 001
Previous Page View | Next Page View

Text | GEOENGINEERING DOWNWELLING OCEAN CURRENTS: A COST ASSESSMENT | 001



GEOENGINEERING DOWNWELLING OCEAN CURRENTS: A COST ASSESSMENT

S. ZHOU1 and P. C. FLYNN2

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8, Canada

2Poole Chair in Management for Engineers, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of

Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8, Canada E-mail: peter.flynn@ualberta.ca

Abstract. Downwelling ocean currents carry carbon into the deep ocean (the solubility pump), and play a role in controlling the level of atmospheric carbon. The formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) also releases heat to the atmosphere, which is a contributor to a mild climate in Europe. One possible response to the increase in anthropogenic carbon in the atmosphere and to the possible weakening of the NADW is modification of downwelling ocean currents, by an increase in carbon concentration or volume. This study assesses the costs of seven possible methods of modifying downwelling currents, including using existing industrial techniques for exchange of heat between water and air. Increasing carbon concentration in downwelling currents is not practical due to the high degree of saturation of high latitude surface water. Two of the methods for increasing the volume of downwelling currents were found to be impractical, and four were too expensive to warrant further consideration. Formation of thicker sea ice by pumping ocean water onto the surface of ice sheets is the least expensive of the methods identified for enhancing downwelling ocean currents. Modifying downwelling ocean currents is highly unlikely to ever be a competitive method of sequestering carbon in the deep ocean, but may find future application for climate modification.

1. Introduction

Oceans play a major role in climate by two primary mechanisms. First, surface currents transport heat from lower to higher latitudes, where it is released to the atmosphere. In particular, the cooling of surface currents in the North Atlantic con- tributes to the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), and the associated heat release is one factor in the mild climate in northern Europe that enables pop- ulation at a higher latitude than on other continents (see, for example, Broecker (1997)). The extent to which European climate is influenced by ocean storage, ocean transport, and atmospheric transport has been the focus of recent studies that suggest the impact of ocean transport mechanisms have been overestimated in the past (see, for example, Trenberth and Caron (2001) and Seager et al. (2002)).

Second, the oceans are a vast storehouse of carbon. The deep ocean, for ex- ample, is estimated to hold over 38 Tt of dissolved carbon (Prentice et al., 2001). If all current annual anthropogenic carbon were transferred to the deep ocean, the concentration of carbon would increase by 0.018% per year. Movement of carbon into or out of the deep ocean is speculated as a possible factor in major changes in

Climatic Change (2005) 71: 203–220

DOI: 10.1007/s10584-005-5933-0 ⃝c Springer 2005

Image | GEOENGINEERING DOWNWELLING OCEAN CURRENTS: A COST ASSESSMENT



geoengineering-downwelling-ocean-currents-cost-assessment
Review of The Brando - French Polynesia - Eco Resort - Go to website

Search Engine Contact: greg@cruisingreview.com