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Publication Title | The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard a harbinger of a more polluted Arctic

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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8401–8409, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/8401/2013/ doi:10.5194/acp-13-8401-2013

© Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Sciences

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

Atmospheric Measurement Techniques

The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard –

a harbinger of a more polluted Arctic?

S. Eckhardt1, O. Hermansen1, H. Grythe1,2, M. Fiebig1, K. Stebel1, M. Cassiani1, A. Baecklund1, and A. Stohl1

1NILU – Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway

2Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

Climate of the Past

Earth System

Correspondence to: S. Eckhardt (sec@nilu.no)

Received: 21 December 2012 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 30 January 2013

Revised: 28 June 2013 – Accepted: 7 July 2013 – Published:

Abstract. In this study we have analyzed whether tourist cruise ships have an influence on measured sulfur diox- ide (SO2), ozone (O3), Aitken mode particle and equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at Ny Ålesund and Zep- pelin Mountain on Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic during summer. We separated the measurement data set into peri- ods when ships were present and periods when ships were not present in the Kongsfjord area, according to a long-term record of the number of passengers visiting Ny Ålesund. We show that when ships with more than 50 passengers cruise in the Kongsfjord, measured daytime mean concentrations of 60 nm particles and EBC in summer show enhancements of 72 and 45 %, respectively, relative to values when ships are not present. Even larger enhancements of 81 and 72 % were found for stagnant conditions. In contrast, O3 concen- trations were 5 % lower on average and 7 % lower under stag- nant conditions, due to titration of O3 with the emitted nitric oxide (NO). The differences between the two data subsets are largest for the highest measured percentiles, while rela- tively small differences were found for the median concen- trations, indicating that ship plumes are sampled relatively infrequently even when ships are present although they carry high pollutant concentrations. We estimate that the ships in- creased the total summer mean concentrations of SO2, 60 nm particles and EBC by 15, 18 and 11 %, respectively. Our find- ings have two important implications. Firstly, even at such a remote Arctic observatory as Zeppelin, the measurements can be influenced by tourist ship emissions. Careful data screening is recommended before summertime Zeppelin data is used for data analysis or for comparison with global chem- istry transport models. However, Zeppelin remains as one of the most valuable Arctic observatories, as most other Arctic

26 August 2013

Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union.

Biogeosciences

observatories face even larger local pollution problems. Sec- ondly, given landing statistics of tourist ships on Svalbard, it

Dynamics

is suspected that large parts of the Svalbard archipelago are

affected by cruise ship emissions. Thus, our results may be

taken as a warning signal of future pan-Arctic conditions if

1 Introduction

Geoscienti c

Arctic shipping becomes more frequent and emission regu- lations are not strict enoIunghs.trumentation

Methods and Data Systems

Geoscienti c

Ship traffic is a substantial source of pollution globally, and

Model Development

it is of particular concern in regions with heavy ship traf-

fic (e.g., near ports or major shipping lanes) or where few

other pollution sources exist, such as the high-latitude re-

gions. It has been found that shipping-related particulate mat-

Hydrology and

ter emission have a significant influence on cardiopulmonary

Earth System

and lung cancer deaths (Corbett et al., 2007). Although the

Arctic population is low, shipping emissions will also con- tribute to health concerns. Norwegian coastal ship traffic, for

instance, is responsible for more than 1/3 and 1/6 of the Norwegian emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), respectively, and contributes substantially to

Sciences

Ocean Science

coastal pollution (Dalsøren et al., 2007). While shipping in

the high Arctic is currently limited by sea ice, observations

in the Arctic boundary layer suggest that shipping around the

periphery of the Arctic Ocean is an important source of black

carbon (BC – we use BC as a qualitative term for material

that (1) has a high fraction of sp2-bonded carbon, (2) consists

Solid Earth

of aggregates of carbon spherules, (3) is thermally refractory

up to 4000 K, (4) is hydrophobic, and (5) is strongly broad- band absorbing for visible light) and polycyclic aromatic

The Cryosphere

M

cess Open Access Open Access Open Access Open Access Open Access Open Access Open Access Open Access Open Access Open Access Open Access

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